With Spring now in full swing, we’re already seeing the first instances of Hay fever as the early flowering plants start to distribute their pollen. Here’s some information and advice for sufferers:
Background: Hay fever is a common allergic condition to pollen that affects up to one in five people at some point in their life. Symptoms of hay fever include sneezing, a runny nose, itchy eyes. Pollen is a fine powder released by plants as part of their reproductive cycle. It contains proteins that can cause the nose, eyes, throat and sinuses (small air-filled cavities behind your cheekbones and forehead) to become swollen, irritated and inflamed.
You can have an allergy to:
- tree pollen, released during spring
- grass pollen, released during the end of spring and beginning of summer
- weed pollen, released late autumn
- Read more about the causes of hay fever.
Many people find their symptoms improve as they get older. Around half of people report some improvement in symptoms after several years. Symptoms disappear completely in around 10-20% of people.
Hay fever treatment
There’s currently no cure for hay fever, but most people are able to relieve symptoms with treatment, at least to a certain extent. The most effective way to control hay fever would be to avoid exposure to pollen. However, it’s very difficult to avoid pollen, particularly during the summer months when you want to spend more time outdoors.
Treatment options for hay fever include antihistamines, which can help to prevent an allergic reaction from occurring and corticosteroids (steroids), which help to reduce inflammation and swelling.
Hay fever can often be controlled using over-the-counter medication from your pharmacist. However, if your symptoms are more troublesome it’s worth speaking to your GP, as you may require prescription medication.
For severe and persistent hay fever, there’s also a type of treatment called immunotherapy. It involves being exposed to small amounts of pollen over time, to build resistance to its allergic effects. However, this can take many months or even years to work.
Read more about treating hay fever.
It’s sometimes possible to prevent the symptoms of hay fever by taking some basic precautions, such as:
- wearing wraparound sunglasses to stop pollen getting in your eyes when you’re outdoors
- taking a shower and changing your clothes after being outdoors to remove the pollen on your body
- staying indoors when the pollen count is high (over 50 grains per cubic metre of air)
- applying a small amount of Vaseline (petroleum gel) to the nasal openings to trap pollen grains
This article originally published on the NHS Choices website, where you can find a more in-depth look at the subject.